Cdc25A phosphatase: a key cell cycle protein that regulates neuron death in disease and development

Biswas, Subhas Chandra and Sanphui, Priyankar and Chatterjee, Nandini and Kemeny, Stav and Greene, Lloyd A (2017) Cdc25A phosphatase: a key cell cycle protein that regulates neuron death in disease and development. Citation: Cell Death and Disease, 8 ( e2692).

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    Abstract

    Cell cycle molecules are mostly dormant in differentiated neurons that are post-mitotic and in the G0 state of the cell cycle. However, a wealth of evidence strongly suggests that in response to a wide variety of apoptotic stimuli, including trophic factor deprivation, exposure to β-amyloid (Aβ) and DNA damage, neurons emerge from theG0 state with aberrant expression/activation of cell cycle proteins.1 This emergence is characterized by a consistent set of events related to the cell cycle that culminate in neuron death. Initial responses include activation of G1/S cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), such as Cdk4 that in turn phosphorylate retinoblastoma (pRb) family proteins and lead to dissociation of repressor complexes comprising E2F and pRb proteins, so that E2F-binding genes are de-repressed. Among genes that are de-repressed by loss of E2F-Rb family complexes are the B- and C-myb transcription factors that in turn transactivate Bim, a pro-apoptotic protein that promotes caspase activation and subsequent neuron death.1–4 This set of events has been termed the ‘apoptotic cell cycle pathway’.Cell division cycle 25A (Cdc25A), a member of a family comprising Cdc25A, B and C, is a dual specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates inhibitory phosphates on adjacent threonine and tyrosine residues of Cdks such as Cdk4.5 This step is essential for initiation of cell cycle in proliferating cells. However, it was not known whether in the non-dividing neurons, the same events would activate the apoptotic cell cycle pathway. In our recent paper published in Cell Death Discovery,6 we report several novel findings regarding the potential role of Cdc25A in neuron death. First, Cdc25A is required for activation of the apoptotic cell cycle pathway and neuron death in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) deprivation and Aβ treatment. Second, Cdc25A acts upstream of Cdk-mediated Rb phosphorylation and caspase-3 cleavage. Third, NGF deprivation and Aβ lead to rapid increases in Cdc25A mRNA and protein levels. NGF withdrawal causes an increase in Cdc25A activity as well. These events occur at about the same time that apoptotic insults lead to Cdk4 activation and Rb phosphorylation in our experimental systems and well precede evident signs of neuron death.

    Item Type: Article
    URI: http://www.eprints.iicb.res.in/id/eprint/2648
    Subjects: Cell Biology & Physiology
    Divisions: Indian Institute of Chemical Biology
    Depositing User: Ms Sutapa Ganguly
    Date Deposited: 15 May 2017 12:45
    Last Modified: 15 May 2017 12:46
    Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cddis.2017.115
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